"Atoms" contain basically no mass nearly all of the mass is "built" of the quantum fluctuation of the vacuum energy. This vacuum energy fluctuates, but is finite. It presents itself in form of gluons, which are the interconnection particles, which hold together the quarks. The mass of a proton consists nearly exclusively of the energy of the gluons:
"Mass is essentially the manifestation of the vacuum energy"
.Light consists of particles, as the current of electrons increases with the increase of the frequency, but not with the increase of the intensity (the "force" of the light). This phenomenon leads Einstein to the concept of photons with minimal quantum energy. But photons have no mass, nevertheless it holds the Einstein equation: E=m*c*c. In addition light is an electro-magnetic wave in the sense of the Maxwell equations.
The energy of the Einstein gravitation field is all time negative. The energy in the universe is constant.
Not everything what happens does have a root cause. But is the result of the human "pattern thinking". How in this context can the phenomenon of "time" be explained?
The Higgs boson combines the existence of mass together with the action of the weak force. But why it provides especially to the quarks that much mass, is still a mystery.
We emphasize that our "ground state energy" model, which can "define" a quantum "object" as an element of a H(-1) Hilbert space models a spontaneous (Higgs-) breakdown just by applying the projection operator from H(-1) into H(0)=L(2) Hilbert space.
From the original famous paper of Higgs (see below) we recall the following statements:
...."the idea, that the apparently approximate nature of the internal symmetries of elementary-particle physics is the result of asymmetries in the stable solution of exactly symmetric dynamical equations .... is an attractive one. .... Within the framework of quantum field theory such a "spontaneous" breakdown of symmetry occurs if a Lagrangian, fully invariant under the internal symmetry group, has a structure that the physical vacuum is a member of a set of (physically equivalent) states which transform according the a nontrivial representation of the group. .... That vacuum expectation values of scalar fields, .... might play such a role in the breaking of symmetries.... in a theory of this type the breakdown of symmetry occurs already at the level of classical field theory...."
We emphasize that our model fits to this statement, while being valid at the same time for the Maxwell equations without any further requirement for additional space-time dimensions to keep consistency between the models.We note that the Dirac delta function is an element of H(-s) for s>n/2, whereby n denotes the dimension of the field.
SMEP & NMEP
The today's Standard Model of Elementary Particles (SMEP) is "just" modeled as the "orthogonal" group stick together by the three "force specific" (gauge) groups.The Standard (field) Model of Elementary Particles (SMEP) is given by SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). Its components are the following interaction dynamics fields:
A Non-Standard Model of Elementary Particles (NMEP)is proposed. It is based on the proposed new ground state energy model, as described in
(BrK) Braun K., "A new ground state energy model".
It is a rotation symmetry group, which is built on a negatively scaled Hilbert space, which builds the framework of Pseudo Differential Operators (PDO) with domains of differentials. It leads to a geometry based field theory, which is independent and therefore does not need to build on EID, WID and SID:
It is about a truly and purely (intrinsic) infinitesimal geometry, which enables "Differentials (monads) Interaction Dynamics (DID)" and which is built on the 4 dimensional space-time Minkowski space.
The negatively scaled Hilbert space enables a quantum state statistics (expectations value and variance) for bosons in H(-a), a>0 framework. The consequence is that the related “expectation value and variance” measures are now decoupled from the corresponding probability theory measures. By this the statement “God does not throw dice” is true, but, at the same time, one has to add, that “God doesn’t count, measure and gauge”, and therefore god doesn’t need finite “length” units to measure distances, especially god does not need the Archimedean axiom.
We note that the alternative to the ""Superstring" "theory"", the “Loop Quantum Gravity”, is built on a Hilbert space K(diff), modeling 3D diffeomorphism invariance and transformation properties of spin network states under diffeomorphism ((RoC) 6.4). The Hamiltonian for the fields is built in a standard analysis framework and defined by ((RoC) 6.4.2)
(RoC) 1.2.1: “The LQG is characterized by the choice of a different algebra of basis field functions, as in Quantum Field Theory (QFT). In conventional QFT this is generally the canonical algebra formed by the positive and negative frequency components of the filed modes. The quantization of this algebra leads to the creation and annihilation operators a and a(+). The characterization of the positive and negative frequencies requires a background space-time. In contrast to this, what characterizes LQG is the choice of a different algebra of basis field functions: a non-canonical algebra based on the holonomies of the gravitational connection. The holonomy (or “Wilson loop”) is the matrix of the parallel transport along a closed curve.”
Therefore, conceptually also the LQG will struggle with the same handicaps, as H. Weyl’s affine geometry.We quote from (WeH3), p. 18: „Ich bin fest davon überzeugt, dass die Substanz heute ihre Rolle in der Physik ausgespielt hat. Der Anspruch dieses von Aristoteles als einer metaphysischen konzipierten Idee, , das Wesen der realen Materie auszudrücken – der Anspruch der Materie, die fleischgewordene Substanz zu sein, ist unberechtigt. Die Physik muss sich ebenso der ausgedehnten Substanz entledigen, wie die Psychologie schon längst aufgehört hat, die Gegebenheiten des Bewusstseins als „Modifikationen“ aufzufassen, die einer einheitlichen Seelensubstanz inhärieren.
Entropy & thermodynamics
The two fundamental theorems of thermodynamics build the foundations of current cosmology models. They seem to be always formulated as 1-form equations:
1st theorem: There exist two 1-forms dA (the so-called "work form") and dQ (the so-called "temperature form") being linked with the energy E of the thermodynamical system by dA+dQ=dE
2nd theorem: there exists a positive real valued (temperature) function T linking the inner entropy S of the thermodynamical system with the temperature 1-from by dQ=T*dS, whereby the 1-form dS is exact.