(Wikipedia) The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. The ground state of a quantum field theory is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum.
state axiom of quantum mechanics: "physical states are described by vectors of a Hilbert space, i.e. physical states are mapped injective onto the radiancies of a Hilbert space."
quantum gravity is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics.
All propositions from this page are w/o academic recognition.
For an alternative introduction with respect to the Yang-Mills equations and the related mass gap problem we refer to
Schrödinger E., "Science and Humanism, Physics in our Time", 1951,
1. The spiritual bearing of science on life: ... "Yet the awareness that specialization is not a virtue but an unavoidable evil is gaining ground, the awareness that all specialized research has real value only in the context of the integrated totality of knowledge. The voices become fainter and fainter that accuse a man of dilettantism who dares to think and speak and write on topics that require more than special training for which he is 'licensed' or 'qualified'. And any loud barking at such attempts comes from very special quarters of two types - either very scientific or very unscientific quarters - and the reasons for the barking are in both cases translucent." ..
The today´s well accepted ground state energy formula of the 1-dimensional harmonic quantum oscillator is just (!) a divergent series. Nobody seems to be concerned about this. Sophisticated renormalization techniques were developped to overcome this home made "issue", when building a quantum gravity theory. If the same nonchalance would be allowed to apply to prove the Riemann Hypothesis, this conjecture is simply proven by the only formally valid representation of Zeta(s)/(s(s-1)) as transform of the invariant self adjoint integral operator with the "density Theta function" G(x) (EdH 10.3, 10.5).
The free energy of a system of interacting harmonic quantum oscillators to model the Planck blackbody radiation law contains same divergent series ((FeR) 10.85).
The underlying still unsolved mathematical conceptual problem is similar to the non-vanishing constant Fourier coefficient of the Theta function for the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) duality problem. The given positive answer to the RH in
in combination with remarkable properties of the Hilbert/Riesz transforms enable an alternative mathematical ground state energy model. This finally ends up in a Hilbert space based quantum gravity model, overcoming current handicaps of (metric space, differentiable (!)) manifolds and Weyl's affine connexion concept. The latter one leverages on Lie's concept of contact transforms (LiS).
(DeJ) 18, VII: "The non-trivial zeros of Riemann's zeta function arise from inquiries into the distribution of prime numbers. The eigenvalues of a random Hermitean matrix arise from inquiries into the behavior of systems of subatomic particles under the laws of quantum mechanics. What on earth does the distribution of prime numbers have to do with the behavior of subatomic particles?"
IN A NUTSHELL
We propose a new ground state energy model ...
- enabling an infinitesimal small geometry model with an inner product defined by "rotating differential forms", alternatively to exterior derivatives based on differentiable (!) manifolds
A new Hilbert scale based truly infinitesimal small geometry is provided, which is proposed to replace the Semi-Riemannian (metrical space) manifold concept (and its underlying gauge theory to enable the Standard Model of Elementary Particles) by a Hilbert space based quantum (differential forms) ground state energy model, building on an intrinsic ground state energy scalar product (of an appropriately defined Hilbert space). The latter one is consistent with existing quantum states modelling within a Hilbert space framework.
The quantization technique from quantum mechanics transfers a physical "real" world´s Partial Differential Equations (PDE) model to a mathematical (transcendental) "quantum" world Hilbert space model. The new model operates the other way around: out of the a priori "quantum/ mathematical" distributional Hilbert space world H(-a) and corresponding Pseudo-Differential Equations (PDO) (variational form representation with respect to the H(-a) inner product) it defines and re-produces the today's "real / physical" PDE world (its variational representation within a Hilbert space H(0)) by orthogonal projection from H(-a) into H(0).
Some related baseline concepts
THE "8 fo(u)r 8" ROAD MAP TO A QUANTUM GRAVITY
A. Eight mathematical and philosophical guides
B. Four mathematical baseline facts
C. Eight mathematical key characteristics
A. Eight mathematical and philosophical guides
The four mathematicians and the four philosophers, who provide guidance and support on our journey, are B. Riemann, J. Plemelj, H. Weyl, E. Schrödinger and G. W. Leibniz, I. Kant, A. Schopenhauer, M. Heidegger.
The baseline of Schopenhauer's philosophy concerning natural recognition is the philosophy of Kant. The common denominator of Schopenhauer's "world as will and representation" (="Maya") and Schrödinger's "world view" (ScE1) is the Indian philosophy of the "vedanta" (Brahman (cosmic soul), Atman (soul), Jagart (world)). Heidegger's philosophy adds the "human taking care" as basic expedience/purpose principle of human life/condition.
B. Four mathematical baseline facts
1. The topics "quantum gravity" and "ground state energy" are mathematical modelling challenges and not problems of physics. The purely experimental facts are given, its interpretations might be not adequate or even wrong due to not adequately applied and/or not appropriately formulated mathematical models. But the validation of physical observations and related measured data requires a common mathematical model, which is not existing today.
2. Physical (field) laws are formulated as Partial Differential Equations (PDE), which can be formulated in a weak form, which is about applying variational theory in a Hilbert space framework. Quantum mechanics is enabled and formulated in a specific Hilbert space framework (von Neumann, Heisenberg), which is (by purpose, by accident or by chance) the same framework, which enables probability theory. In order to define the "regularity" of the Dirac function, which is not Lebesgue integrable, it requires distributional Hilbert spaces. The Dirac function is an element of H(-n/2+e) with e>0 and n being the space-time dimension.
3. The Einstein field equations are not well-posed, non-linear PDE w/o appropriate or even missing initial or boundary value conditions. This is even valid for the Hilbert-Einstein action minimization representation of the field equations. This fact is "excused/justified/explained/anticipated" with (basically philosophical) open questions, e.g. concerning the (anyway transcendental) "appropriate" assumptions of the big-bang theory and related singularity (black whole) phenomenon. The "measurement" capability of today's (Riemannean) metric space model is built on (not only continuous (Riemannean)) differentiable manifolds, which is not appropriate to capture energy and/or action relationships between quantums to model the ground state energy phenomenon appropriately.
4. Newton's famous equation
m * a = F
has it's counterpart in Einstein's famous "tensor" field equations
G(i,k) = T(i,k).
The latter one is more exact than Newton's formula by a factor 10 * exp(-7).
From a modelling perspective there is a huge conceptual difference between both equations: while Newton's equation is embedded in the Euclidean space and is purely describing the relationship between three isolated (a priori) physical terms (mass, velocity, force) as part of the Euclidean framework, the later one is describing relationships between the"geometrical" (framework) structure itself and its influencing /building matter / energies. The "geometrical" (framework) structure contains matter, which, at the same time, influences / builds / defines the framework:
the right hand side of the Einstein field equations describes the (physical) scenes and, the left hand side describes the stage itself, where the scenes happen.
This situation is not the result of an a priori defined physical requirement to be modelled or a new knowledge about physical "reality" derived from the model, but just the consequence of the chosen mathematical (tensor, manifolds, affine connexions, exterior derivatives) model.
C. Eight mathematical key characteristics
1. Given the contradictorily scene / stage framework of the Einstein field equations the probability that the underyling mathematical model can be leveraged to a well-posed physical model in any future, is 0%
2. The weak (variational) representation of PDE is based on same Hilbert space framework than quantum mechanics; the probability that physical PDE models will meet quantum mechanics models in a common variational theory framework, is 100%
3. The probability (from our human (BEING) perspective) that the universe is discrete, i.e. that there is no continuum at all, is 0%, as long as mathematics is "existing" for human BEING
4. The probability that all (physical) Nature constants are transcendental, is 100%
5. Singular integral operators (PDOs of negative order) operate on Hilbert scale. Their domain is defined per usage and required regularity. The Riesz (PD) Operators have nice properties relative to rotations ((StE), III, 1.2), which enable the definition of an inner (operator) product with domain of the linear space of differentials, which corresponds to a Hilbert space with negative scale: that enables the building of a Hilbert space of n-forms.
6. The mathematical model of a single or double layer potential V(t) induced by "matter" is given by a Lebesgue integral with Newton kernel k(s,t) and a mass density u'(s)ds. From a physical point of view a "potential" is a purely continuous phenomenon, but the mathematical model still require a "test particle", which is a real number (not forseen in the physical world of a potential). J. Plemelj (PlJ) proposed an alternative model of a potential, by replacing the mass density by "mass elements", i.e. to replace the Lebesgue integral by a Stieltjes integral and the mass density u'(s)ds by du(s). ..." eine solche (mass density) Annahme erweist sich aber als eine derart folgenschwere Einschränkung, dass dadurch dem Potentiale V(t) der grösste Teil seiner Leisungsfähigkeit hinweg genommen wird". The challenge of the (contact-interacting problem) test particle does not appear in a distributional framework similar to the Dirac "function" definition (LiI), (LiI1).
7. The Hilbert space L(2)=H(0) with e.g. the Hermite polynomials as orthogonal system cannot be the common denominator framework for a quantum gravity. It requires a less regular Hilbert space H(-a), with a>0 appropriately chosen (for the 1-dimensional harmonic quantum oscillator it seems to be sufficent to choose a := n/2).
In the context of distributional Hilbert spaces we refer to (LiI), (LiI1). With respect to a corresponding alternative polynomial systems to the Hermite or Laguerre polynomials we refer to (SeA). As the H(0) Hilbert space is compact embedded in H(-a) for any a>,0 (and dense with respect to the H(-a) norm) "discrete" phenomenon in H(0). like quantum leaps and uncertainty inequality, could be modelled as orthogonal projection from H(-a) into H(0).of corresponding "continuous" phenomenon in H(-a).
8. In variational theory the Dirichlet integral D(u,v) (= the Lebesgue integral of the product of gradient(u) * gradient(v)) defines the inner product of the standard (energy) Hilbert space H(1).
The Dirichlet / gradient operator, which defines the (energy) inner product D(u,v) is replaced by the Calderon-Zygmund operator to define an alternative (energy) inner product (Su,Sv)(a) with appropriately chosen scale factor "a".
The above equalities put the norm of a “mass element” into relationship to an element of the H(0) Hilbert space, which is framework of today's quantum mechanics. What's remaining to do is an appropriate Interpretation and probably a revisiting of the current state axiom of quantum mechanics.
(AhJ) Ahner J. F., "Some spectral properties of an integral operator in potential theory"
(DeJ) Derbyshine J., "Prime Obsession", Joseph Henry Press, Washington D.C., 2003
(FeR) Feynman R. P., Hibbs A.R., "Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals", Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, New York, 2010
(LiS) Lie S., "Über die Grundlagen der Geometrie", Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, Sonderausgabe MCMLXVII
(LiI) Lifanov I.K., Poltavskii L.N., Vainikko G.M., "Hypersingular Integral Equations and Their Applications", Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, D.C., 2004
(LiI1) Lifanov, I. K., Nenashev A. S., Generalized functions on Hilbert spaces, singular integral equations, and problems of aerodynamics and electrodynamics
(PlJ) Plemelj J., "Potentialtheoretische Untersuchungen", B. G. Teubner Verlag, 1911
(PoP) Poluyan P. V., "Non-Standard Analysis of Non-classical Motion; do the hyperreal numbers exist in the Quantum-relative universe?"
(ScE) Scholz E., "Geschichte des Mannigfaltigkeitsbegriffs von Riemann bis Poincare", Bilkhäuser Verlag, Boston, Basel, Stuttgart, 1980
(ScE1) Schrödinger E., "Mein Leben, meine Weltansicht", dtv, 2006
(SeA) Sedletskii A. M., "Asymptotics of the Zeros of Degenerate Hypergeometric Functions"
(SoH) Sohr H, "The Navier-Stokes Equations, An Elementary Functional Analytical Approach", Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Boston, Berlin, 2001
(TrE) Trefftz E., "Das statische Gravitationsfeld zweier Massenpunkte in der Einsteinschen Theorie"
(WEH) Weyl H., "Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science", Princeton University Press, 1949
(WeH2) Weyl H, "Space - Time - Matter", Dover Publications, Inc., 1922